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Extra resources for A_124_FRP
Copyright 1996 Chapman & Hall number of tests required to confirm the desired acceptability can be evaluated (13). Similar plots can be produced for different confidence limits and distributions (37) and it should be noted that less demanding 90% confidence limits are adopted in some countries. The choice of distribution type and confidence limits for use in particular circumstances is thus a matter of judgement. If an in-situ characteristic strength is estimated it can be compared with the specified value, but this approach is not recommended unless numerous in-situ results are available.
3). Other specialized versions are available for impact sensitive zones and for mass concrete. 4 is used which has an enlarged hammer head (Type P). 2 Procedure The reading is very sensitive to local variations in the concrete, especially to aggregate particles near to the surface. It is therefore necessary to take several readings at each test location, and to find their average. Standards vary in their precise requirements, but BS 1881: Part 202 (45) recommends 12 readings taken over an area not exceeding 300 mm square, with the impact points no less than 20mm from each other or from an edge.
Although this may occasionally relate to reinforcement quantities and location, or concrete properties such as permeability, in most instances it will be the concrete strength which is relevant. 4). Calculations are generally based on minimum likely, or characteristic, ‘standard specimen’ values being modified by an appropriate factor of safety to give a minimum in-situ design value. In-situ measurements will yield directly an in-situ strength of the concrete tested and this must be related to a similar specimen type and size to the ‘standard’ used in the calculations.