Gustaf John Ramstedt, Juha Janhunen's A Korean Grammar PDF

By Gustaf John Ramstedt, Juha Janhunen

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Perhaps most importantly, the dative ending used in the reflexive declension has always been *-dA (*-DA), yielding the complex *-dA-xA/n (*-DA-xA/n). The reflexive marker could also follow the bare stem, yielding an unmarked form functionally equivalent to the accusative. NUMERALS In view of its relatively shallow dating, it is not surprising that Proto-Mongolic had a fully developed set of native numerals, corresponding to a decimal system of counting. It is, indeed, perhaps more surprising that some of the peripheral Mongolic languages, notably (Minhe) Mangghuer and Moghol, have replaced the original numeral set, or large sections of it, by recent borrowings and other innovations.

Moreover, only the nasals *m *n *ng, the liquids *r *l, the sibilant *s, and one set of non-palatal (non-affricate) stop obstruents were possible syllable-finally. Morphophonemic relationships, such as *bulag ‘spring [of water]’: gen. *bulag/u-n, allow the syllable-final stops to be identified with the weak series *b *d *g, which, consequently, may be viewed as unmarked with regard to the strong series. In clusters beginning with a nasal, only the labial nasal could be followed by another labial consonant (*mb), while both the labial and the velar nasal could be followed by a velar consonant (the types *mg *ngg).

Ner. Owing to the diversification of the plural suffixes, the original rules of complementarity were lost, often allowing several different plurals to be formed of a single nominal stem. n suggest that plural formation may originally have been part of a more general system of nominal classes, in which both the singular and the plural were marked by distinct class suffixes. What the semantic basis of this possible Pre-Proto-Mongolic class system may have been, remains to be clarified, but in any case it is obvious that the distribution of the plural suffixes was not only phonologically conditioned.

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A Korean Grammar by Gustaf John Ramstedt, Juha Janhunen

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