By R.E. HESTER, R HARRISON
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Middleton, 2SZ, and 60220, M eteorological Office, London European Commission, Road, Bracknell, Berkshire R G 12 UK Skouloudis, Environment Institute, TP 250, Ispra (VA), DG Joint /-21020, Research Centre 'Ispra', Italy XI job:LAY01 28-7-1998 page:1 colour:1 black–text Improving Air Quality in the United Kingdom DOUGL AS R. M I DDLET ON* 1 Introduction The concentration of pollutants in urban areas from sources near the ground has become of increasing concern in the UK, particularly since the London pollution episode of December 1991.
Automatic analysers, deployed at carefully selected locations, can provide more detailed time-resolved data for assessing peak concentrations or comparison with short-term standards. Remote sensors such as OPSIS can provide integrated multi-pollutant measurements along a specified path. This is the most expensive type of air 53 job:LAY03 28-7-1998 page:14 colour:1 black–text J. Bower Table 1 Air monitoring techniques Method Advantages Disadvantages Capital cost Passive samplers E Very low cost E Very simple E Useful for screening and baseline studies E Unproven for some pollutants E In general only provide monthly and weekly averages £8—50 per sample Active samplers E Low cost E Easy to operate E Reliable operation/ performance E Historical dataset E Provide daily averages E Labour intensive E Laboratory analysis required :£1k per unit Automatic analysers E Proven E High performance E Hourly data E On-line information E Complex E Expensive E High skill requirement E High recurrent costs :£10k per analyser Remote sensors E Provide path or range-resolved data E Useful near sources E Multi-component measurements E Very complex and expensive E Difficult to support, operate, calibrate and validate E Not readily comparable with point measurements :£50—100k per sensor, or more monitoring system, and careful attention needs to be paid to calibration, quality control and data validation procedures if the best use is to be made of this technology.
Paper. The longest-established communication method for air quality information is, of course, the written paper report. Some would argue, however, that this method is rapidly becoming obsolete in the light of advances in electronic data communication methods. 2. Computer Media. Based for many years on the transfer of floppy discs, this method has now been rapidly superseded in the UK by the use of on-line or broadcast methods, together with the annual publication of CD-ROMs containing both data and statistics from all national air monitoring programmes.
AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT by R.E. HESTER, R HARRISON