By K. N. Liou
Stable publication for either undergrads and grads. additionally invaluable as a reference booklet for researchers.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation
3 Absorption Line Formation and Line Shape 23 at another phase and these new phases are now randomly distributed. From general statistical principles, the time between collisions is distributed according to Poisson’s law that the probability a collision occurs between t and t + dt is e−t/t0 , where t0 is the mean time between collisions. All the initial phases of the wave trains must be averaged. 13) 0 where [g(ν)]2 is the distribution of intensity, and A is a certain constant. Further, by letting 1/t0 = 2π αc(α in cm−1 ) and using Eq.
Sunspots are almost entirely conﬁned to the zone of latitude between 40◦ and the equator, and they never appear near the poles. Just after their minimum occurrence, spots ﬁrst appear near latitude 27◦ in both hemispheres. As the cycle proceeds, they drift toward the equator and disappear close to latitude 8◦ . Sunspots are cooler regions with an average temperature of about 4000 K, compared to an average temperature of 6000 K for the photosphere. Because of their relatively low temperature, sunspots appear black.
1, we discussed the physical meaning of stationary states for a hydrogen atom. Schr¨odinger (1926) ﬁrst introduced the idea of stationary states corresponding to standing matter waves and used this idea as the foundation of wave mechanics. In quantum mechanics, to determine the energy states produced by vibrational and rotational transitions, a term referred to as the Hamiltonian operator, H, 18 1 Fundamentals of Radiation for Atmospheric Applications was introduced as a convenient operator by replacing variables in the classical expression for the energy, E, of a system composed of the atomic nuclei and electrons that form a molecule.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation by K. N. Liou